More than half of babies born in the U.S are eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), which provides families with healthful food, breastfeeding support, nutrition education, and health referrals. Evidence shows that WIC works—with participation linked to decreased infant mortality, and improved cognitive functioning in young children.
Despite the many benefits of program engagement, some families who receive support from WIC miss out on their WIC appointments at the agency, where they are able to claim their food benefits. Some families also stop participating before their children turn five and their eligibility ends. Researchers and practitioners have identified the “recertification” appointment around a child’s first birthday, which requires families to bring in paperwork to prove their eligibility, as a common drop off point in program participation nationwide. Indeed only 58% of America’s WIC-eligible one-year-olds participate in WIC compared to 79% of eligible infants. This drop in participation continues as children age, with only 25% of WIC-eligible four-year-olds participating in the program.
Our earlier research in 2016 identified that when participants don’t attend WIC appointments to claim their benefits, or stop participating in the program altogether, it’s not always because they don’t want or need the services. Instead, some participants are derailed by structural barriers like a lack of transportation. Others face behavioral barriers: they don’t find the long-term value of the program salient, are confused about the purpose of appointments, or simply forget to prepare paper work for their appointments before it’s too late.
ideas42 has worked with state and local WIC programs to use behavioral design to create solutions that help families overcome these behavioral barriers, including:
- Using framing tactics, such as loss aversion, and updated timing to make text message appointment reminders more actionable.
- Enhancing customer service by designing tools to help participants navigate and set goals during WIC appointments.
- Simplifying the WIC shopping experience with app-based design recommendations.
Currently, with support from the The David and Lucile Packard Foundation and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, we are working with California and Texas WIC to improve participation and retention in the program for families.